ORIGINAL ARTICLE


https://doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10084-12120
Pondicherry Journal of Nursing
Volume 12 | Issue 3 | Year 2019

Effectiveness of Planned Teaching Program on the Home Care Management of Preterm Babies among Postnatal Mothers of Hospitalized Preterm Babies in the Institute of Child Health, Egmore, Tamil Nadu


Srinivasan Saranya

Department of Child Health Nursing, Kasturba Gandhi Nursing College, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Puducherry, India

Corresponding Author: Srinivasan Saranya, Department of Child Health Nursing, Kasturba Gandhi Nursing College, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Puducherry, India, Phone: +91 9003069650, e-mail: saranyas@kgnc.ac.in

How to cite this article Saranya S. Effectiveness of Planned Teaching Program on the Home Care Management of Preterm Babies among Postnatal Mothers of Hospitalized Preterm Babies in the Institute of Child Health, Egmore, Tamil Nadu. Pon J Nurs 2019;12(3):60–62.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: Premature infants (born before 32 weeks of gestation excluding extremely preterm babies) are at greater risk of short- and long-term complications, including disabilities and impediments in growth and mental development. Significant progress has been made in the care of premature infants, but still there is a need to give more attention at home to the special aspects of care of these babies. The study aimed to assess the effectiveness of planned teaching program on the home care management of preterm babies among postnatal mothers.

Materials and methods: A quantitative research approach is adopted with the pre-experimental (one group pretest–posttest only) research design and a purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample of 60 postnatal mothers who have hospitalized their preterm babies (born before 32 weeks of gestation excluding extremely preterm babies) in the Institute of Child Health, Egmore. The pretest was conducted by using a structured questionnaire, and the planned teaching program (power point) was implemented to postnatal mothers regarding the home care management of preterm babies. The posttest was conducted after 7 days of pretest.

Results: The results show the effectiveness of planned teaching program on the home care management of preterm babies among postnatal mothers between the pretest and posttest, and the p value was highly significant at the p %3C; 0.001 level.

Conclusion: The planned teaching program on the home care management of preterm babies among postnatal mothers was implied to be effective.

Keywords: Care of preterm babies, Postnatal mothers, Planned teaching program.

INTRODUCTION

Child’s growth and development start after the conception, inside the mother’s womb. Postnatal health of an infant largely depends on the gestational age at the time of birth.1 The duration of a pregnancy is calculated by the gestational age. A normal gestation is 40 weeks/280 days. Neonates born before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy are called premature/preterm infants. The birth of premature infants is associated with several problems that lead to frequent hospital admissions for infections, inadequate weight gain, feeding problems, apnea, and so on.2 Despite the comprehensive and advanced efforts to prevent the premature delivery and birth of premature infants, the birth rates of such infants are high due to certain problems such as maternal factors, environmental factors, social status, infertility treatment, and so on.3,4 The cause for preterm birth is sometimes unknown; many factors are associated with the occurrence of preterm birth. The health and survival of the preterm baby depend upon the health status of the mother and her awareness, education, and skills in mothercraft. Every year 15 million babies are born before the normal gestational age. This is more than 1 in 10 of all babies.5 Complications from preterm birth are the leading cause of child deaths under the age of 5 years every year, accounting for nearly 1 million deaths.6 Mother is the primary health worker. Mother always looks after the baby with complete love, affection, and sense of sacrifice. Early involvement of the mother in the home care management of her preterm baby is the best way to promote and encourage the well-being of the preterm babies. Mother is the person to identify minor developmental deviations and early evidence of disease process because the mother is constantly and closely watching her baby.7

All the premature babies require special care and attention after birth both in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and after discharge from the hospital to home, till they gain certain weight. After discharge from NICU, the mother has to take special care of the baby. Mother should need some basic knowledge and skills pertaining to preterm home care management and mothercraft such as nutrition (breastfeeding), immunization, skin home care management, personal hygiene, and management of common health problems of mothers.8 As the relationship between the baby and the mother is well known, there is no better time to begin the home care management of the baby than while it is still a fetus. Various maternal factors such as maternal age, parity, spacing between mothers, her health and nutritional status, and home care management during pregnancy will have effect on growth and well-being of fetus.9

OBJECTIVES

The objectives of this study are as follows:

HYPOTHESES

H1: There will be difference between the level of knowledge before and after the planned teaching program regarding the home care management of preterm babies among postnatal mothers.

H2: There is a significant association between the level of knowledge regarding the home care management of preterm babies and selected demographic variables.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Quantitative approach was used to assess the effectiveness of planned teaching program on the home care management of preterm babies among postnatal mothers. The research design used for this study is the one group pretest–posttest design, which belongs to the pre-experimental research design. The study was conducted in step-down NICU, Institute of Child Health, which is located at Egmore, Tamil Nadu. The population of this study comprises postnatal mothers who have hospitalized their preterm child (born before 32 weeks of gestation excluding extremely preterm babies) at Institute of Child Health, Egmore, Tamil Nadu. The sample for this study is 60 postnatal mothers. A purposive sampling technique was used to select the subjects from the population. The tool used in this study was organized in two sections. Section A consists of demographic variables of postnatal mothers such as age, educational status, occupation, monthly income of family, religion, and type of the family and source of information of the postnatal mothers of hospitalized preterm babies. Section B of the 30 multiple choice questions (MCQ’s) regarding care of preterm babies at home. It is categorized under seven parts.

Part IKnowledge regarding the pretermTwo items
Part IIKnowledge regarding thermoregulationFour items
Part IIIKnowledge regarding breastfeedingEight items
Part IVKnowledge regarding the skin care and baby bathThree items
Part VKnowledge regarding the cord care and eye careTwo items
Part VIKnowledge regarding immunizationFour items
Part VIIIdentification of danger signs and regular follow-upSix items
Total30

The data were analyzed by both descriptive (mean, frequency, percentage, and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (paired t test for comparison of knowledge and Chi-square test to find the association between posttest knowledge postnatal mothers regarding the home care management of preterm babies and demographic variables).

RESULTS

Table 1 shows the distribution of level of knowledge regarding the home care management of preterm babies among postnatal mothers during pretest and posttest. In the pretest out of 60 samples, 38 (63.4%) had inadequate knowledge, 20 (33.3%) had moderately adequate knowledge, and 2 (3.3%) had adequate knowledge and in the posttest 56 (93.3%) had adequate knowledge and 4 (6.7%) had moderately adequate knowledge.

Table 2 represents the mean, median, standard deviation, and mean difference of pretest and posttest comparison value on the knowledge regarding the home care management of preterm babies among primi mothers. The table reveals that the mean pretest knowledge score was 8.45 and the posttest knowledge score was 16.42, which was higher than that of the pretest. The standard deviation of the pretest knowledge score was 2.824 and the posttest knowledge score was 1.425. The obtained paired “t” value was 21.892, and it was highly significant at the p < 0.001 level.

Table 1: Distribution of level of knowledge regarding home care management of preterm babies among postnatal mothers during pretest and posttest (n = 60)
Level of knowledgePretest
Posttest
FrequencyFrequency percentageFrequencyFrequency percentage
Not adequate (<50%)3863.4  0
Moderate (50–<75%)2033.3  4  6.7
Adequate (%3E;75%)  2  3.35693.3
Table 2: Mean, median, standard deviation, and mean difference of pretest and posttest comparison value on the knowledge regarding home care management of preterm babies among postnatal mothers (n = 60)
ParameterMeanSDMean differencePaired t test valuep value
Pretest  8.452.8247.2921.892<0.001*
Posttest16.421.425

* Highly significant at p < 0.001 level

CONCLUSION

Mother should have some basic knowledge and skills pertaining to the home care management of preterm babies (born before 32 weeks of gestation excluding extremely preterm babies) and mothercraft such as nutrition (breastfeeding), immunization, skin home care management, personal hygiene, and management of common health problems in preterm babies. The conclusion of this study shows that the majority of mothers of preterm babies had inadequate knowledge during pretest, and after the planned teaching program regarding the home care management of preterm babies, the majority of the mothers have gained adequate knowledge that is evidenced in the posttest scores.

DECLARATION OF THE STUDY PARTICIPANTS

The author certifies that appropriate consent forms have to be obtained from all study participants. The study subjects were informed that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be put to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

REFERENCES

1. Wilson H. Wong’s nursing home care management of infants and children. vol. 7, Missouri: Elsevier Publication; 2003. pp. 374–375.

2. Ahmadi SH, Kazemi F, Masoumi SZ, Parsa P, Roshanaei G. Intervention based on BASNEF model increases exclusive breastfeeding in preterm infants in Iran: a randomized controlled trial. Int Breastfeed J 2016;11:30.

3. Masumi Z, Parsa P. An epidemiologic survey on the causes of infertility in patients referred to infertility center in Fatemieh Hospital in Hamadan 2010–2011. Irani J Rep Med 2015;13(8):513–516.

4. Mirlashari J, Andishehe Rafee. Rassouli M. Nursing home care management of infant and children. 1st ed.,Tehran 2007. pp. 70–71.

5. Preterm baby: relationship with gestational age [online].Available from: URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preterm_birth.

6. Beevi A. Textbook of pediatric nursing. Noida: Elsevier’s Publication; 2009. pp. 143–145.

7. Clinical issues in the management of late preterm infants [online]. 2010 Oct;available from: URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20875895.

8. A premature birth study [online].Available from: URL: http://www.prematurity.org/research/prematurity-effects1d.html.

9. Home care management of very low birth weight babies [online]. 1985 May 25;available from: URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2860400.

________________________
© The Author(s). 2019 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and non-commercial reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.