Effectiveness of an Information Booklet on Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Female Feticide among Women in a Selected Rural Area, Bengaluru
Corresponding Author: Bangalore V Tejeshwari, Department of Community Health Nursing, RajaRajeswari College of Nursing, Kambipura, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India, Phone: +91 9611867066, e-mail: email@example.com
How to cite this article Tejeshwari BV. Effectiveness of an Information Booklet on Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Female Feticide among Women in a Selected Rural Area, Bengaluru. Pon J Nurs 2019;12(4):87–89.
Source of support: Nil
Conflict of interest: None
Introduction: Female feticide is the process of finding out the sex of the fetus and undergoing abortion if it is a girl. This is one of the most prevalent issues today. The preference for the male child dates back into history and obviously, therefore, female feticide has long been practiced in Indian societies. With the advancement in technology and development of easier and cheaper techniques, female feticide has spread throughout India. The government has amended the Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PCPNDT) Act of 1994 that criminalized prenatal sex screening and female feticide, making it illegal in India to determine or disclose the sex of fetus to anyone.
Objectives: The objectives of this study are as follows: To assess the existing level of knowledge and attitude regarding female feticide among women in a selected rural area, Bengaluru. To assess the posttest knowledge level and attitude regarding female feticide among women in a selected rural area, Bengaluru. To assess the effectiveness of information booklet on knowledge regarding female feticide among women. To find out the association between posttest knowledge scores with the selected demographic variable.
Design: Quasi-experimental design (one group pretest posttest design) was used to study the effectiveness of information booklet. Fifty women of rural area, Bengaluru, were recruited by the nonprobability purposive sampling technique. Necessary administrative permission was obtained from the concerned authority. Structured interview schedule was used to elicit the baseline data, and structured questionnaires were used to elicit the knowledge regarding female feticide among women in a selected rural area, Bengaluru.
Setting: The study was conducted in a selected rural area, Bengaluru, and 50 women were recruited for this study.
Results: The study revealed that among 50 women, 22 (44%) women had adequate knowledge, 28 (56%) women had moderately adequate knowledge, and there was no inadequate knowledge found in the posttest score. The mean pretest knowledge score of women was 9.8, whereas the mean posttest knowledge score was 23.33. The obtained “t” value was 13.24, which was found to be statistically significant at 0.05 level.
Conclusion: The study concluded that the information booklet on knowledge regarding female feticide among women in a selected rural area, Bengaluru, was found to be effective in improving the knowledge of women as evidenced by the significant change between pretest and posttest knowledge scores.
Keywords: Assess, Effectiveness, Female feticide, Information booklet, Knowledge, Women.
Female feticide in India is the abortion of a female fetus outside of legal methods. The frequency of female feticide in India is increasing day by day. The natural sex ratio is assumed to be between 103 and 107, and any number above it is considered as suggestive of female feticide. According to the decennial Indian census, the sex ratio in the 0–6 age group in India has risen from 102.4 males per 100 female in 1961, to 104.2 in 1980, to 107.5 in 2001, and to 108.9 in 2011.1
The child sex ratio is within the normal natural range in all eastern and southern states of India, but significantly higher in certain western and particularly north western states such as Maharashtra, Haryana, and Jammu and Kashmir (118, 120, and 116 as of 2011, respectively). The western state of Maharashtra and Rajasthan 2011 census found a child sex ratio of 113, Gujarat of 112, and Uttar Pradesh of 111.2
The Indian census data suggest that there is a positive correlation between abnormal sex ratio and better socioeconomic status and literacy. This may be connected to the dowry system in India where dowry deaths occur when a girl is seen as a financial burden. Urban India has a higher child sex ratio than rural India according to 1991, 2001, and 2011 census data, similarly a child sex ratio of >115 boys per 100 girls is found in regions where the predominant majority is Hindu, Muslim, Sikh, or Christian. There is an ongoing debate as to whether this high sex ratio is only caused by female feticide or sum of the higher ratio is explained by natural causes.3
NEED FOR STUDY
In spite of the competence and comprehension of our bureaucrats in the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and Ministry of Women and Child Development the rate of female feticide has not been reduced to zero census. It is the tempting thought that our religious leaders will be able to sway the people to change the reproductive behavior and abandon female feticide but unfortunately the religious factor is at a discount and this approach has not worked. For the above said if the political parties took up this issue, it would be much easier for the social activists to work in this regard. Their credibility in the eyes of the people is at all time low. The talk of the civil society is intentionally popular but it is not understood in India. One is driven to the conclusion that some other strategic interventions are called for without writing of the bureaucrats, religion leaders, and politicians.4
One strategic intervention go on the part at the government is to introduce new social legislation and also seek help in a big way from concerned NGOs to make a massive effort to eradicate the social menace of female feticide. Political will and the strong arm of law can work wonders.5
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
“A study to assess the effectiveness of an information booklet on knowledge and attitude regarding female feticide among women, in a selected rural area, Bengaluru”.
The objectives of this study are as follows:
- To assess the existing level of knowledge and attitude regarding female feticide among women in a selected rural area, Bengaluru.
- To assess the posttest knowledge level and attitude regarding female feticide among women in a selected rural area, Bengaluru.
- To assess the effectiveness of information booklet on knowledge regarding female feticide among women.
- To find out the association between posttest knowledge scores with the selected demographic variable.
- H1: There will be significant difference between pretest and posttest knowledge scores among the women
- H2: There will be significant association between the posttest knowledge score and demographic variables among the women.
- Research approach: evaluative approach.
- Research design: quasi-experimental research design.
- Setting of the study: the study was conducted in the Chunchanakuppe rural area, Bengaluru.
- Study population: the population selected for this study was women in the selected rural area.
- Sampling technique: purposive sampling technique was adopted for this study.
- Sample size: 50.
STRUCTURED QUESTIONNAIRE DESCRIPTION
The structured questionnaire designed to elicit the level of knowledge regarding female feticide which is composed of general view about female feticide awareness and attitude toward the prevention of female feticide. The total number of items included in a structured questionnaire was 30. The number of items in a baseline knowledge questionnaire was 10 items, a questionnaire on awareness of female of female feticide was 10 items, and a questionnaire on practice against female feticide was 10 items. The scores are classified as follows: adequate score means >75%, moderately adequate score means 51–74%, and inadequate score means %3C;50%.
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
Description of pretest and posttest knowledge and attitude of women regarding female feticide.
The data presented in Table 1 show that 46 (92%) had inadequate knowledge, 4 (8 %) women had moderately adequate knowledge, and no one had adequate knowledge in pretest. The mean is 9.8 and SD is 4.17 in the pretest knowledge, whereas 22 (44%) women had adequate knowledge, 28 (56%) women had moderately adequate knowledge, and no one found inadequate knowledge in posttest. A mean of 23.33 and a standard deviation of 2.05 were found in the posttest knowledge.
The data presented in Table 2 show that 30 (60%) had negative attitude, 12 (24 %) women had neutral attitude, and 8 (16%) had positive attitude in pretest. The mean is 9.8 and SD is 4.17 in the pretest knowledge.
The data presented in Table 2 show that 41 (82%) had negative attitude, 6 (12 %) women had neutral attitude, and 3 (06%) had positive attitude in posttest. The mean is 23.33 and SD is 2.05 in the posttest knowledge.
The data presented in Table 3 show that the obtained [t] value was 13.24, which was found to be statistically significant at 0.05 levels.
- A similar study can be replicated on a large sample to generalize the findings.
- A study can be conducted by including additional demographic variables.
- A comparative study can be carried out between pretest subject and posttest subject based on the findings given to the community through other interventions.
|Knowledge level||Category||Classification of women|
|Frequency (f)||Percentage||Frequency (f)||Percentage|
|Level of attitude||Classification of women|
|Frequency (f)||Percentage||Frequency (f)||Percentage|
|Maximum score||Mean||SD||Mean difference||Paired “t” test||Significance|
- Study was limited for 50 women.
- Period of data collection was limited to 6 weeks.
The study concluded that the information booklet on knowledge and attitude regarding female feticide among women was effective in improving the knowledge and attitude of women as evidenced by the significant change between pretest and posttest knowledge scores.
1. Kaur M. Female foeticide - a sociological perspective. J Fam Welfare 1999;39(1):40–43.
2. Khanna SK. Prenatal sex determination: a new family building strategy. Manushi; 1995. p. 86.
3. Prenatal sex selection. and Female foeticide in India (2005). An information pack, CD-ROM, Ministry of health and family welfare, and UNFPA,New Delhi.
4. Proceedings of the regional workshop on the implementation of the PCPNDT act 1994, 2006. Institute of development studies,Kolkata.
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