ORIGINAL ARTICLE


https://doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10084-13181
Pondicherry Journal of Nursing
Volume 16 | Issue 4 | Year 2023

A Descriptive Study to Determine the Quality of Life among Transgenders Residing at Puducherry


Dhana Lakshmi J

Department of Community Health Nursing, Indirani College of Nursing, Puducherry, India

Corresponding Author: Dhana Lakshmi J, Department of Community Health Nursing, Indirani College of Nursing, Puducherry, India, Phone: +91 9655144046, e-mail: jkdl1993@gmail.com

How to cite this article: Lakshmi DJ. A Descriptive Study to Determine the Quality of Life among Transgenders Residing at Puducherry. Pon J Nurs 2023;16(4):79–81.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

Received on: 12 October 2023; Accepted on: 20 December 2023; Published on: 10 January 2024

ABSTRACT

Introduction: God has created human beings as equal without any discrimination as to their skill power, will power, grasping power, intellect, etc. But it’s the human beings who discriminate, misuse and abuse human being and treat them as objects and the fault lies only on the selfish nature of the human beings.

Aim and objective: To assess the quality of life among transgenders residing at Puducherry. To correlate the quality of life and general health among transgender with their demographic variables. To associate the quality of life among transgender with their demographic variables.

Methodology: The present study was conducted to “a descriptive study.” A quantitative research approach was considered as appropriate for the present study. The investigation (research) design selected for the study is descriptive design. The study was conducted in Puducherry. The selection of setting was done on the basis of feasibility of conducting the study. The target population for the study comprises transgenders at Puducherry in this present study. Sample consists of 100 transgenders in Puducherry. Purposive sampling technique was used to select the samples of this study modified World Health Organization Quality of Life, Health, Physical, Psychological, Social and Environmental (WHOQOL-BREF) and General health questionnaires (GHQs) on quality of life among transgenders residing at Puducherry. Demographic data consist of age in years, religion at birth, religion at present, educational status, occupation, income, type of family, relationship status, residing area, whether they are living with their family, when did you feel that you are not belonging to biological gender, age at which left home, did you undergo cosmetic/surgical changes, at which age you underwent cosmetic/surgical change made.

Results: It shows that out of 100 transgenders highest percentage of 86 (86%) were of fair health and 12 (12%) were better health and 2 (2%) were worst health.

Keywords: General health questionnaires, Health, Physical, Psychological, Quality of life, Social and environmental, Transgender, World Health Organization.

INTRODUCTION

God has created human beings as equal without any discrimination as to their skill power, will power, grasping power, intellect, etc. But it is the human beings who discriminate, misuse and abuse human being and treat them as objects and the fault lies only on the selfish nature of the human beings.

Transgender people have a gender identity or gender expression that differs from their assigned sex. Transgender people are sometimes called transsexual if they desire medical assistance to transition from one sex to another.

Other definitions of transgender also include people who belong to a third gender, or conceptualize transgender people as a third gender infrequently, the term transgender is defined very broadly to include cross-dressers, regardless of their gender identity.1

Most transgender people face discrimination in the workplace and in accessing public accommodations and healthcare. In many places they are not legally protected from discrimination.

Usually, if you are male, you don’t think about it much. It feels normal. And, for most girls, it feels very natural to be female. But that’s not true for everyone. Transgender people who were born male feel they should be female, and transgender people who were born female feel they should be male. People who are transgender feel like they are living inside a body that’s all wrong for them. They often say they feel “trapped in someone else’s body.” Most people’s gender identity matches their anatomy. But people who are transgender feel different from their physical appearances.2,3

Transgenders are also part of the society and they have equal right to everything in the world that is available to all other persons. The presence of such transgender is not new, but their presence is there from the time immemorial as could be seen from several scripts, probably because the nature requires such a class to maintain the equilibrium. The most important aspect we have to think is the discrimination. The discrimination based on their class and gender makes the transgender community one of the most disempowered groups in Indian society.4

OBJECTIVES

To assess the quality of life among transgenders residing at Puducherry.

To correlate the quality of life and general health among transgenders with their demographic variables.

To associate the quality of life among transgenders with their demographic variables.

Assumption

Transgenders may have the risk of developing physical health/sexually transmitted diseases.

Transgenders may have the risk of quality of life developing mental health problems.

METHODOLOGY

The present study was conducted to “A Descriptive Study.” A quantitative research approach was considered as appropriate for the present study. The investigation (research) design selected for the study is descriptive design. The study was conducted in Puducherry. The selection of setting was done on the basis of feasibility of conducting the study. The target population for the study comprises transgenders at Puducherry in this present study. Sample consists of 100 transgenders in Puducherry. Purposive sampling technique was used to select the samples of this study modified World Health Organization Quality of life, Health, Physical, Psychological, Social and Environmental (WHOQOL-BREF) and General health questionnaires (GHQs) on quality of life among transgenders residing at Puducherry. Demographic data consist of age in years, religion at birth, religion at present, educational status, occupation, income, type of family, relationship status, residing area, whether they are living with their family, when did you feel that you are not belonging to biological gender, age at which left home, did you undergo cosmetic/surgical changes, at which age you underwent cosmetic/surgical change made.5

Development and Description of Tool

Section A

Section A consists of the demographic variables which include Age in years, Religion at birth, Religion at present, Educational status, Occupation, Income, Type of family, Relationship status, Residing area, Whether they are living with their family, When did you feel that you are not belonging to biological gender, Age at which left home, Did you undergo cosmetic/surgical changes, at which age you underwent cosmetic/surgical change made.6

Section B

Section B consists of Modified World Health Organization Quality of Life – Biomedical Research and Education Foundation (WHOQOL-BREF) rating scale (6 domains – Quality of life, Health, Physical, Psychological, Social and Environmental) and GHQs on quality of life among transgender residing at Puducherry.

SCORING AND INTERPRETATION

WHOQOL-BREF Score

S. No. Score Interpretation
1. 1–43 Poor quality of life
2. 44–87 Moderate quality of life
3. 88–130 Good quality of life

General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)

S. No. Score Interpretation
1. 1–12 Better health
2. 13–24 Fair health
3. 25–36 Worst health

RESULTS

Demographic Variables

According to age, it shows that 15 (15%) of the transgenders were in the age-group of 10–20 years and 44 (44%) of the transgenders were in the age-group of 21–30 years and 20 (20%) of transgenders were in the age-group of 31–40 years and 21 (21%) of transgenders were in the age-group of above 41 years. Religion at birth 96 (96%) were Hindus and 0 (0%) of them were Muslim and 4 (4%) were Christian and 0 (0%) of them were others. Religion at present 96 (96%) were Hindus and 0 (0%) of them were Muslim and 4 (4%) were Christian and 0 (0%) of them were others. Educational status shows that 53 (53%) are primary school and 28 (28%) had High school and 10 (10%) had Higher secondary school and 9 (9%) were graduate and above. Occupation shows that 1 (1%) is Government employee and 8 (8%) are private worker and 12 (12%) are self-worker and 45 (45%) are sex worker and 33 (33%) are begging and 1 (1%) was un-employed. Monthly income of 100 (100%) of transgenders were eanning 1000 – 10,000 and 0 (0%) of transgender 10,001–20,000 and 0 (0%) of the transgender 20,001–30,000, and 0 (0%) of transgender above 30,001. Type of family shows that 8 (8%) of them are in joint family and 91 (91%) were in nuclear family, and 1 (1%) was in living in hostel. Relationship status shows that 59 (59%) were single and 41 (41%) were living relationship. Residing area shows that 29 (29%) of were urban area and 69(69%) were rural area and 2 (2%) were semi-urban area. Living their family shows that 10 (10%) of were living with family and 90 (90%) were not living with their family. You feel you are not belonging to biological gender shows that 18 (18%) are 6–8 years and 61 (61%) are 9–11 years and 14 (14%) are 12–14 years and 7 (7%) are above 15 years. Age at which left home shows that 12 (12%) are 10–15 years and 64 (64%) are 16–20 years and 17 (17%) are 21–25 years, and 7 (7%) are 25 years above. Underwent cosmetic/surgical changes shows that 100 (100%) underwent the cosmetic surgical and 0 (0%) not done any cosmetic surgery. Which age you underwent the cosmetic surgery shows that 19 (19%) are 10–15 years and 36 (36%) are 16–20 years, and 29 (29%) are 21–25 years, and 16 (16%) are 25 years above.7,8

Tables 1 to 4 reveal that frequency and percentage-wise distribution on quality of life among transgenders residing in area at Puducherry. Show that out of 100 clients the highest percentage of 77.4% were quality of life and 71.45% were Environment domain and 71% were Health and 67.43% were psychological domain and 65.66% were social domain and 46.8% were physical domain. Overall quality of life among transgenders residing in selected area at Puducherry were 67.03%. The quality of life scores were particularly low for the “Physical” domain.9

Frequency and percentage-wise distribution to determine the Quality of life among transgender residing in selected area, Puducherry

DISCUSSION

The finding reveals that out of 100 clients the highest percentage of 77.4% were quality of life and 71.45% were Environment domain and 71% were Health, 67.43% were psychological domain, 65.66% were social domain, and 46.8% were Physical domain. Overall quality of life among transgenders residing in selected area at Puducherry was 67.03%. The quality of life scores were particularly low for the “Physical” domain.

Table 1: Reveals the frequency and percentage-wise distribution of general health among transgenders residing in the area of Puducherry
Domains Max score Range Score
Mean SD Mean %
Quality of life 5 5–1 3.87 1.07 77.4
Health 5 5–1 3.55 1.19 71
Physical domain 45 29–9 21.06 4.84 46.8
Psychological domain 30 27–8 20.23 3.71 67.43
Social domain 15 15–3 9.85 2.90 65.66
Environment domain 40 38–12 28.58 5.27 71.45
Overall 130 107–57 87.14 10.83 67.03
Table 2: Shows that out of 100 clients, the highest percentage of 86 (86%) were in fair health 12 (12%) were in better health and 2 (2%) were in worst health
General health Max score Range Score
Mean SD Mean %
Overall 36 31–36 16.76 3.97 47
Mean, SD, and mean% to determine the quality of life among transgenders residing in selected area, Puducherry
Table 3: Shows that the Chi-square test revealed that there is a statistically significant association between selected quality of life among transgender with demographic variables such as age in years
Level of general health Score
F %
Better health 12 12
Fair health 86 86
Worst health 2 2
Total 100 100

The highest percentage of 86 (86%) were fair health and 12 (12%) were better health and 2 (2%) were worst health.

The improvement was statistically tested by paired ‘r’ test. The result found to be significant at p < 0.001, because of the assessment. It indicates that the quality of life and general health was very effective to improve level of quality of life among transgender people.10,11

Table 4: Reveals that the quality of life and general health were assessed by total range score. The improvement was statistically tested by the paired ‘r’ test. The result was found to be significant at p < 0.001, because of the assessment
General health and quality of life r-value p-value
  –0.309 0.03*
*p < 0.05, significant and **p < 0.01 and ***p < 0.001, highly significant

CONCLUSION

From the finding, it is concluded that transgender quality of life and health on the basis of this study, the following conclusion were down present result of client showed that there was less physical domain on quality of life and general health was fair. The study shows that quality of life and general health is significant association with demographic variables such as age in years, religion at birth, religion at present, living with their family.12,13

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