REVIEW ARTICLE


https://doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10084-13179
Pondicherry Journal of Nursing
Volume 16 | Issue 4 | Year 2023

Asherson’s Disease


Kounassegarane Deepika https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8123-7514

Department of Clinical Immunology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Education and Research, Puducherry, India

Corresponding Author: Kounassegarane Deepika, Department of Clinical Immunology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Education and Research, Puducherry, India, Phone: +91 9629750987, e-mail: deepsdeeps7287@gmail.com

How to cite this article: Deepika K. Asherson’s Disease. Pon J Nurs 2023;16(4):85–87.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

Received on: 09 February 2023; Accepted on: 08 April 2023; Published on: 10 January 2024

ABSTRACT

Asherson’s disease is a rare autoimmune disorder. It affects the anticoagulation mechanism of blood. The exact cause of the disease is unknown but it may be due to antiphospholipid (APL) syndrome, hereditary, and gene transformation. This disease may affect all organs in the human body. There is no cure for the disease and no exact medicine has been identified. Supportive treatment is given to promote the betterment of the individual with Asherson’s disease.

Keywords: Antiphospholipid syndrome, Asherson’s disease, Coagulation factor, Hereditary.

INTRODUCTION

Asherson’s syndrome is an extremely rare autoimmune condition which is shortly known as catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS). It is defined as the there is a fast progression of blood clots affecting many organs within an hour, days, or weeks. The major triggering factor of the disease may be due to the administration of vaccination, or wounds due to any physical injury. Infection is caused by microorganisms and the body’s anticoagulation mechanism failure. It is also defined as the presence of certain antibodies [antiphospholipid (APL) antibody] which is helpful for the formation of blood clots in the body.1

An individual who had defects in their anticoagulation mechanism which is due to recurrent injury or bleeding are more prone to get this syndrome. Individuals with previous experience of an episode of the APL syndrome will easily get Asherson syndrome.1

INCIDENCE

Ashersons’s disease has been identified since 1992, around 300 people were affected by this condition, and women are more prone to get affected when compared to men. This can affect at any age-group, but the majority of the affected people are in the younger age-group.

ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS

CLASSIFICATION

PATHOGENESIS

Due to etiological factors (genetic thrombophilia, poor APL-in-circulation) and precipitating factors (malignancy, infections, obstetric complications, surgery, trauma, withdrawal of anticoagulant medications, oral contraceptives)

Activation of coagulation cascade (abnormal cellular proliferation and differentiation impacting on cell function)

Inflammation is a central pathogenic factor in APS

Disseminated intravascular coagulation, SIRS

Systemic microvascular thrombosis

CAPS (Asherson’s syndrome)

Multiple organ failure5,6

CLINICAL FEATURES

DIAGNOSIS

COMPLICATIONS

MEDICAL MANAGEMENT

There is no conventional treatment. Some treatment regimens are:

DIETARY MANAGEMENT

Foods to Include

  • Green leafy vegetables: These are rich in magnesium which is an essential nutrient for autoimmune disease (e.g., Spinach, broccoli)

  • Turmeric: It has anti-inflammatory properties and is rich in antioxidants

  • Fish: Fish like salmon are rich in omega-3-fatty acids and antioxidants which help in fighting diseases.

  • Berries: Berries are rich in high antioxidants. Cauliflower: It contains sulphur which fights against cellular damage and provides protection

Don’t Include

  • Some foods act as an aggravating factor for this disease. So it is essential to know about the foods that interact to aggravate the symptoms

  • Some of the foods are:

    • Foods rich in vitamin K such as avocadoes, beans to be avoided

    • Cranberry juice has an effect on blood thinning. So it should be avoided

    • Avoid consumption of alcohol

NURSING MANAGEMENT

CONCLUSION

Ashesrson’s syndrome is a life-threatening condition which is characterized by diffuse vascular thrombosis, results in multiple organ failure within a short period of time.5,6 Even though the number of cases reported of this condition is low, but the mortality rate is around 50%. Because of the high rate of mortality, this disease is considered to be a serious illness. So there should be greater awareness and early diagnosis and treatment to be carried out. APL mediated.5

ORCID

Kounassegarane Deepika https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8123-7514

REFERENCES

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3. Asherson’s syndrome [online]. National Organizations for Rare Disorders. Available at: https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/ashersons-syndrome/.

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5. Cervera R, Font J, Gómez-Puerta JA, Espinosa G, Cucho M, Bucciarelli S, et al. Validation of the preliminary criteria for the classification of catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis 1998;77(3):195–207. DOI: 10.1097/00005792-199805000-00005.

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9. Makatsariya A, Khizroeva J, Bitsadze V. Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (Ronald Asherson syndrome) and obstetric pathology. Journal of Perinatal Medicine 2020;46(4):387–400. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2017-0092.

10. Misita CP, Moll S. Antiphospholipid antibodies. Circulation 2005;112:e39–44. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.548495.

11. Ortel TL, Kitchens CS, Erkan D, Brandão LR, Hahn S, James AH, et al. Clinical causes and treatment of the thrombotic storm. Expert Review of Hematology 2020;5(6):653–659. DOI: 10.1586/ehm.12.56.

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