Background: There is a high risk for healthcare workers (HCWs) to get infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during the ongoing pandemic, which may last for many months. Inadequate preparedness of the healthcare delivery system, such as shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE), lack of hand hygiene facilities, insufficient manpower capacity building may compromise the safety of HCWs and quality of care. Therefore, it is essential to ensure efficient workplace readiness for the HCWs for their safety and thereby the continued quality of care. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted to assess workplace preparedness at healthcare facilities in northern India, especially the availability of PPE, HCWs capacity building, and mitigation effort taken by institutions. A 20-item structured, prevalidated questionnaire was circulated among nurses, doctors, premedical, and other categories of healthcare workers deployed at different level of healthcare facilities in conveniently selected states of northern India. This web-based survey was conducted during the month of April–June 2020, where 1,218 HCWs voluntarily participated. Results: Out of 1,218 participants, the majority of them reported adequate supply of PPE (804; 66%), availability of sufficient hand hygiene facility (802; 65.8%), organization of capability building and upskilling training program on COVID-19 for them (896; 73.6%), and perceived institute\'s excellent to good level of support while working with patients of COVID-19 (890; 73.1%). Conclusion: There was provision of adequate PPE, infection control facilities, upskilling of HCWs, and support system for the healthcare warriors in northern India to maintain adequate safety of HCWs and functionality of the healthcare system in this crucial time.
WHO Rolling updates on coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Available at: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/events-as-they-happen (accessed on June 13, 2020).
CDC. 2019 Novel Coronavirus, Wuhan, China. CDC. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/about/index.html. January 26, 2020; (accessed on June 14, 2020).
WHO. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) Situation Report – 144. Available at https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200612-covid-19-sitrep-144.pdf?sfvrsn=66ff9f4f_2 (accessed on June 13, 2020).
Nagesh S, Chakraborty S. Saving the frontline health workforce amidst the COVID-19 crisis: challenges and recommendations. J Glob Health 2020;10(1):010345. DOI: 10.7189/jogh-10-010345.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Update: outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome — worldwide, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2003;52:269–272.
World Health Organization. Shortage of personal protective equipment endangering health workers worldwide. WHO, Geneva. 3 March 2020. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/03-03-2020-shortage-of-personal-protective-equipment-endangering-health-workers-worldwide (accessed on June 17, 2020).
Buckley C, Wee S-L, Qin A. China's doctors, fighting the Coronavirus, beg for masks. New York Times. 2020. Available: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/14/world/asia/china-coronavirus-doctors.html. (accessed June 12, 2020).
Papoutsi E, Giannakoulis VG, Ntella V, Pappa S, Katsaounou P. Global burden of COVID-19 pandemic on healthcare workers. ERJ Open Res 2020;6(2):00195–02020. DOI: 10.1183/23120541.00195-2020.
Pinner Harry Q, April 24, 2020, Covid-19: One in five healthcare workers could quit after pandemic unless urgent government action is taken, IPPR warns, https://www.ippr.org/news-and-media/press-releases/covid-19-one-in-five-healthcare-workers-could-quit-after-pandemic-unless-urgent-government-action-is-taken-ippr-warns (accessed on June 16, 2020).
Kim T. Improving preparedness for and response to coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) in long-term care hospitals in Korea. Infect Chemother 2020;52(2):133–141. DOI: 10.3947/ic.2020.52.2.133.
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Government of India. Available at: https://www.mohfw.gov.in/pdf/MeasuresUndertakenToEnsureSafetyOfHealthWorkersDraftedForCOVID19Services.pdf (accessed on June 13, 2020).
World Health Organization. Consensus document on the epidemiology of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS); 2003. Available from URL: https://www.who.int/csr/sars/en/WHOconsensus.pdf (accessed June 20 2020).
Galbadage T, Peterson BM, Gunasekera RS. Does COVID-19 spread through droplets alone? Front Public Health 2020;8:163. DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.00163.
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Infection prevention and control for COVID-19 in healthcare settings – Second update. 31 March 2020. ECDC: Stockholm; 2020.
Rothe C, Schunk M, Sothmann P, Bretzel G, Froeschl G, Wallrauch C, et al. Transmission of 2019-nCoV infection from an asymptomatic contact in Germany. N Eng J Med 2020;382(10):970–971. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc2001468.
Grover S, Dua D, Sahoo S, Mehra A, Nehra R, Chakrabarti S. Why all COVID-19 hospitals should have mental health professionals: the importance of mental health in a worldwide crisis!. Asian J Psychiatr 2020;51:102147. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102147.
McMichael TM, Currie DW, Clark S, Pogosjans S, Kay M, Schwartz NG, et al. Epidemiology of covid-19 in a long-term care facility in king county, Washington. N Engl J Med 2020 382(21):2005–2011. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2005412.
Xiang YT, Jin Y, Wang Y, Zhang Q, Zhang L, Cheung T. Tribute to health workers in China: a group of respectable population during the outbreak of the COVID-19. Int J Biol Sci 2020;16(10):1739–1740. DOI: 10.7150/ijbs.45135.
Felice C, Di Tanna GL, Zanus G, Grossi U. Impact of COVID-19 outbreak on healthcare workers in Italy: results from a national E-survey. J Community Health 2020;45(4):675–683. Available from https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-020-00845-5.
Ghosh A, First official figures on Covid among healthcare workers in India — 1,073 cases until 23 May [Internet]. 2020 June 22 [cited 2020 July 23]; The Print: Health. Available from https://theprint.in/health/first-official-figures-on-covid-among-healthcare-workers-in-india-1073-cases-until-23-may/446586/.
Tandon A, At least 70 Indian doctors have died so far while on Covid duty [Internet]. 2020 July 1 [cited 2020 July 23]; Tribune News Service: Voice of the people. Available from: https://www.tribuneindia.com/news/nation/at-least-70-indian-doctors-have-died-so-far-while-on-covid-duty-107081.
Peters DH, Garg A, Bloom G, Walker DG, Brieger WR, Rahman MH. Poverty and access to health care in developing countries. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2008;1136(1):161–171. DOI: 10.1196/annals.1425.011.
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Guidance for wearing and removing personal protective equipment in healthcare settings for the care of patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-192020 [cited 8 March 2020]. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/guidance-wearing-and-removing-personal-protective-equipment-healthcare-settings.
World Health Organization (WHO). Rational use of personal protective equipment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) 2020 [updated 27 February 2020; cited 8 March2020]. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/331215/WHO-2019-nCov-IPCPPE_use-2020.1-eng.pdf.
US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Strategies to Prevent the Spread of COVID-19 in Long-Term Care Facilities (LTCF) 2020 [updated 1 Mach 2020; cited 8 March 2020]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/healthcare-facilities/prevent-spread-in-long-term-care-facilities.html.
World Health Organization (WHO). Hand Hygiene in Outpatient and Home-based Care and Long-term Care Facilities 2012 [cited 8 March 2020]. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/78060/9789241503372_eng.pdf?sequence=1.
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Case definition and European surveillance for COVID-19, as of 2 March 2020 Stockholm: ECDC; 2020. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/case-definition-and-european-surveillance-human-infection-novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov.
Chen A, Video of Female Medics in China Having Their Heads Shaved Sparks Backlash Over Propaganda in the Coronavirus Fight. TIME. 2020. Available: https://time.com/5788592/weibo-women-coronavirus/. Accessed: 14 April 2020.
Ahmed J, Malik F, Bin Arif T, Majid Z, Chaudhary MA, Ahmad J, et al. Availability of personal protective equipment (PPE) among US and Pakistani doctors in COVID-19 pandemic. Cureus 2020;12(6):e8550. DOI: 10.7759/cureus.8550.
Tabah A, Ramanan M, Laupland KB, Buetti N, Cortegiani A, Mellinghoff J, et al. Personal protective equipment and intensive care unit healthcare worker safety in the COVID-19 era (PPE-SAFE): an international survey. J Crit Care 2020;59:70–75. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2020.06.005.
Onyedibe KI, Shehu NY, Pires D, Isa SE, Okolo MO, Gomerep SS, et al. Assessment of hand hygiene facilities and staff compliance in a large tertiary health care facility in northern Nigeria: a cross sectional study. Anti Microb Resist Infect Control 2020;9(1):30. Available on: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13756-020-0693-1.
Bhagavathula AS, Aldhaleei WA, Rahmani J, Mahabadi MA, Bandari DK. Knowledge and perceptions of COVID-19 among health care workers: cross-sectional study. JMIR Public Health Surveill 2020;6(2):e19160. DOI: 10.2196/19160.
Kang L, Li Y, Hu S, Chen M, Yang C, Yang BX, et al. The mental health of medical workers in Wuhan, China dealing with the 2019 novel coronavirus. Lancet Psychiatr 2020;7(3):e14. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30047-X.
Zhang M, Zhou M, Tang F, Wang Y, Nie H, Zhang L, et al. Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding COVID-19 among healthcare workers in Henan, China. J Hosp Infect 2020;105(2):183–187. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhin.2020.04.012.
Liu CY, Yang Y, Zhang XM, Xu X, Dou Q-L, Zhang W-W, et al. The prevalence and influencing factors in anxiety in medical workers fighting COVID-19 in China: a cross-sectional survey. Epidemiol Infect 2020;148:e98. DOI: 10.1017/S0950268820001107.