Citation Information :
K R, V P. Assessment of the Risk Factors for Renal Calculi among its Patients at Nephrology OPD in MGMCRI, Puducherry, with a View to Develop Self-instructional Module. 2020; 13 (3):60-63.
Since centuries, humans have been afflicted with urinary stones dating back to 4,000 BC, and it is the most common disease of the urinary tract. Prevention of recurrence of renal stones remains a serious human health problem.1,2Background: Prevention of renal stones recurrence requires a better understanding of the processes involved in stone formation. Kidney stones have been proposed to be a urological condition related to the metabolic syndrome.3,4 Nephrolithiasis is responsible for 2–3% of end-stage renal diseases.5Aim: To identify the risk factors for renal calculi among patients attending nephrology OPD and to find out the association between the risk factors for renal calculi with the selected demographic variables of patients with renal calculi. Materials and methods: Retrospective research design (Quantitative Approach) was adopted for the study. Thirty patients diagnosed with renal calculi were selected by purposive sampling technique. Risk factors were assessed by using open-ended questionnaire, and the data were analyzed by means of descriptive and inferential statistics such as frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, and Chi-square test. Results: In the study, 12 (43%) were consuming 3 L of water in a day, 19 (78%) were taking tomatoes more in their food daily, 23 (79%) had no family history of renal calculi, 10 (40%) were having diabetes mellitus, and in consuming excessive amount of salt of more than 59 mg/day, 22 (78%) belong to yes and 8 (22%) belong to no. Regarding consumption of drugs, 19 (64%) belonged to no, 11 (36%) belonged to yes, and 18 (76%) belonged to agriculture. Thirteen (62%) samples are consuming alcohol once weekly, and 18 (64%) were consuming meat twice weekly. With regard to passing urine in a day, most 16 (70%) of the samples were passing 3–5 times, 23 (82%) had history of urinary tract infection, and 26 (86%) were not having the history of immobility. With regard to consumption of milk and milk products, 22(84%) had daily once. There was association between age and chronic and hereditary disease, gender and chronic and hereditary disease, religion and consumption of salt, and education and chronic and hereditary disease. Conclusion: The risk factors for renal calculi were identified, and the education was given to the patients regarding the preventive measures and to control of risk factors in their day-to-day life. This research has been useful in defining risk factors and looking to the future.
Pearle MS, Calhoun EA, Curhan GC. Urologic diseases of America project. Urologic diseases in America project: urolithiasis. J Urol 2005;173(3):848–857. DOI: 10.1097/01.ju.0000152082.14384.d7.
Lavan JN, Neale FC, Posen S. Urinary calculi. Clinical, biochemical and radiological studies in 619 patients. Med J Aust 1971;2(21):1049–1061. DOI: 10.5694/j.1326-5377.1971.tb92706.x.
Coe FL, Evan A, Worcester E. Kidney stone disease. J Clin Invest 2005;116(10):2598–2598. DOI: 10.1172/JCI26662.
Baker PW, Coyle P, Bais R, Rofe AM. Influence of season, age, and sex on renal stone formation in South Australia. Med J Aust 1993;159(6): 390–392. DOI: 10.5694/j.1326-5377.1993.tb137913.x.
Curhan GC, Willett WC, Speizer FE. Comparison of dietary calcium with supplemental calcium and other nutrients as factors affecting the risk for kidney stones in women. Ann Intern Med 1997;126(7):497–504. DOI: 10.7326/0003-4819-126-7-199704010-00001.
Curhan GC, Willett WC, Rimm EB. A prospective study of dietary calcium and other nutrients and the risk of symptomatic kidney stones. N Engl J Med 1993;328(12):833–838. DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199303253281203.
Curhan GC, Willett WC, Knight EL. etary factors and the risk of incident kidney stones in younger women: nurses’ health study II. Arch Intern Med 2004;164(8):885–891. DOI: 10.1001/archinte.164.8.885.
Brunner, Suddarth's. Textbook of medical surgical nursing. 13th ed., New delhi: Wolterskluver Publishers; 2014.
Devuyst O, Pirson Y. Genetic of hypercalciuric stone forming disease. Kidney Int 2007;72(9):1065–1072. DOI: 10.1038/sj.ki.5002441.
Prit D, Friedlander G. Genetic causes of renal lithiasis. Int Bone Min Soc (IBMS) 2009. 357–367.
Abdel Goad EH, Berreczky ZB. Metabolic risk factors in patents with renal stones in KwaZulu natal: an inter-racial study (Asian and whites). BJU Int 2004;93(1):120–123. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2004.04569.x.
Chakera A, Paul HJ, O'Callaghan CA. Reversible renal impairment caused by thyroid disease. Scand J Urol Nephrol 2010;44(3):190–193. DOI: 10.3109/00365591003636604.
Costa Bauza A, Isern BP. Factors affecting the regrowth of renal stones in vitro: a contribution to the understanding of renal stone development. Scand J Urol Nephrol 2005;39(3):194.
Chris, Kidney stone causes and risk factors. Home/current health articles. www.healthcentre.com 2010.
Smeltzer SC, Bare BG, Hinkle JL, Cheever KH. Management of patients with urinary disorders. Textbook of medical surgical nursing. 12th ed., Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2010; 1375–1380.
Kavanagh J. Super saturation and renal precipitation. Urologic Res 2006;34(2):81–85. DOI: 10.1007/s00240-005-0015-3.
Lukács T, Frang D, El-Seaghy AA, et al. Multiple urolithiasis in bilharziasis patient. Int Urol Nephrol 1989;21(3):269–273. DOI: 10.1007/BF02559736.
Okada A, Ohshima H, Itoh Y, Yasui K, Tozawa K, Koohri K. Risk of renal stone formation induced by long- term bed rest could be decreased by premeditation with bisphosphonate and increased by resistive exercise. Int J Urol 2008;15(7):630–635. DOI: 10.1111/j.1442-2042.2008.02067.x.
Agarwal MM, Singh SK, Mavuduru R, Mandal AK. Preventive fluid and dietry therapy for urolithiasis: An appraisal of strength, controversies and lacunae of current literature. Indian J Urol 2011;27(3):310–319. DOI: 10.4103/0970-1591.85423.
Rashid A. A study on an epidemiological profile, mineral metabolic pattern & crystallographic analysis of urolithiasis in Kuwait. Asian J Urol 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajur.2018.08.007.
Kumar S, Dahiya K. A study on socio economic, personal and family profile along with food habits of patient with kidney stone. J Urol 2019. DOI: 10.21048/ijnd.2016.53.2.2370.
Hirvonen T, Pietinen P, Virtanen MJ. A study on nutrient intake and use of beverage and risk of kidney stone among male smokers. Indian J Urol 1999;150(2):187–194.
Bharathi C, Amirthaveni L. Compared 24 hours urinary composition of urinary tone formers and healthy volunteers. Indian J Nutrit Dietet 2016;53:74–79. DOI: 10.21048/ijnd.2016.53.2.4303.
Curhan Z. A study on effect of calcium and other nutrients on risk of symptomatic kidney stone. Indian J Nutrit 2012;328(12):880–882.
Vasanthamani M, Sushmitha G. Studied the impact of diet counseling of kidney stone patient. Int J Biochem Res 2016;3(4):429–432.
Taylor P, Curhan Z. Worked on effect of oxalate intake and risk for nephrolithiasis. J Am Soc Nephrol 2007;18(7):2198–2204. DOI: 10.1681/ASN.2007020219.
http//www.harvard health publication.com. 2010…kidney stones-risk factors.
http//www.About-com. Health topic A-Z. kidney stone 2010 adam.about.com/reports/0000081-7.htm.