Pondicherry Journal of Nursing

Register      Login

VOLUME 15 , ISSUE 2 ( April-June, 2022 ) > List of Articles

REVIEW ARTICLE

Monkeypox: An Overview

Subakeerthi Venkataramanan

Keywords : Antiviral treatment, Orthopoxvirus, Smallpox

Citation Information : Venkataramanan S. Monkeypox: An Overview. 2022; 15 (2):42-44.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10084-13144

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 27-08-2022

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


Abstract

The monkeypox virus is a dual-stranded DNA virus that infects humans and other animals. It originally belonged to the Orthopoxvirus genus and the Poxviridae family. It is a human Orthopoxvirus, along with variola, cowpox, and vaccinia viruses. It is neither a progenitor nor a successor of the variola virus, which causes smallpox. Monkeypox is similar to smallpox but has a milder rash and a lesser mortality rate.


PDF Share
  1. Koppers-Lalic D, Hoeben RC. Replication-competent Non-human Viruses for Use in Clinical Gene Therapy: An Inventory Study. Bilthoven: COGEM 2010.
  2. Weinstein RA, Nalca A, Rimoin AW, Bavari S, Whitehouse CA. Reemergence of monkeypox: Prevalence, diagnostics, and countermeasures. Clinical infectious diseases 2005;41(12):1765– 1771. DOI: 10.1086/498155.
  3. Petersen E, Abubakar I, Ihekweazu C, Heymann D, Ntoumi F, Blumberg L, et al. Monkeypox—Enhancing public health preparedness for an emerging lethal human zoonotic epidemic threat in the wake of the smallpox post-eradication era. Int J Infect Dis 2019;78:78–84. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2018.11.008.
  4. Parker S, Nuara A, Buller RM, Schultz DA. Human monkeypox: An emerging zoonotic disease. Future Microbiol 2007;2(1):17–34. DOI: 10.2217/17460913.2.1.17.
  5. Damon IK. Status of human monkeypox: Clinical disease, epidemiology and research. Vaccine 2011;29(Suppl 4): D54–D59. DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.04.014.
  6. Reynolds MG, Damon IK. Outbreaks of human monkeypox after cessation of smallpox vaccination. Trends Microbiol 2012;20(2): 80–87. DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2011.12.001.
  7. Nakazawa Y, Emerson GL, Carroll DS, Zhao H, Li Y, Reynolds MG, et al. Phylogenetic and ecologic perspectives of a monkeypox outbreak, southern Sudan, 2005. Emerg Infect Dis 2013;19(2): 237–245. DOI: 10.3201/eid1902.121220.
  8. Pauli G, Blümel J, Burger R, Drosten C, Gröner A, Gürtler L, et al. Orthopox viruses: Infections in humans. Transfus Med Hemother 2010;37(6):351–364. DOI: 10.1159/000322101.
  9. Sejvar J. Neuroepidemiology and the epidemiology of viral infections of the nervous system. Handb Clin Neurol 2014;123: 67–87. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-444-53488-0.00003-1.
  10. Reynolds MG, Yorita KL, Kuehnert MJ, Davidson WB, Huhn GD, Holman RC, et al. Clinical manifestations of human monkeypox influenced by route of infection. J Infect Dis 2006;194(6):773–780. DOI: 10.1086/505880.
  11. Ježek Z, Szczeniowski M, Paluku KM, Mutombo M. Human monkeypox: Clinical features of 282 patients. J Infect Dis 1987;156(2):293–298. DOI: 10.1093/infdis/156.2.293.
  12. World Health Organization. Laboratory testing for the monkeypox virus: Interim guidance, 23 May 2022. World Health Organization; 2022.
  13. Nitsche A, Stern D, Ellerbrok H, Pauli G. Detection of infectious poxvirus particles. Emerg Infect Dis 2006;12(7):1139–1141. DOI: 10.3201/eid1207.060093.
  14. Usman S, Adamu II. Modeling the transmission dynamics of the monkeypox virus infection with treatment and vaccination interventions. J Appl Math Phys 2017;5(12):2335. DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2017.512191.
  15. Vaughan A, Aarons E, Astbury J, Balasegaram S, Beadsworth M, Beck CR, et al. Two cases of monkeypox imported to the United Kingdom, September 2018. Euro Surveill 2018;23(38):1800509. DOI: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2018.23.38.1800509.
  16. Petersen E, Kantele A, Koopmans M, Asogun D, Yinka-Ogunleye A, Ihekweazu C, et al. Human monkeypox: Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and prevention. Infect Dis Clin 2019;33(4):1027–1043. DOI: 10.1016/j.idc.2019.03.001.
  17. Roess AA, Monroe BP, Kinzoni EA, Gallagher S, Ibata SR, Badinga N, et al. Assessing the effectiveness of a community intervention for monkeypox prevention in the Congo basin. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2011;5(10):e1356. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001356.
  18. Diaz JH. The disease ecology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, management, prevention, and control of increasing human infections with animal orthopoxviruses. Wilderness Environ Med 2021;32(4):528–536. DOI: 10.1016/j.wem.2021.08.003.
  19. Baker RO, Bray M, Huggins JW. Potential antiviral therapeutics for smallpox, monkeypox and other orthopoxvirus infections. Antiviral Res 2003;57(1–2):13–23. DOI: 10.1016/s0166-3542(02)00196-1.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.