COVID-19 or SARS-CoV-2 infection is known to have an association with a myriad of viral, fungal, and bacterial co-infections. Mucormycosis is a rare angio-invasive fungal infection that has shown a rising trend during COVID-19 infection in India. Mucormycosis is a rapidly progressing fungal infection caused by filamentous fungi in the Mucoraceae family and is frequently seen in diabetic and immune-compromised patients. Mucormycosis is a condition with a fulminant course and a high mortality risk. The early diagnosis and treatment of mucormycosis is very important in terms of prognosis.
Awal SS, Biswas SS, Awal SK. Rhino-orbital mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients—a new threat? Egypt J Radiol Nucl Med 2021;52(1):152. DOI: 10.1186/s43055-021-00535-9.
Karadeniz Uğurlu Ş, Selim S, Kopar A, Songu M. Rhino-orbital mucormycosis: clinical findings and treatment outcomes of four cases. Turk J Ophthalmol 2015;45(4):169–174. DOI: 10.4274/tjo.82474.
Frater JL, Hall GS, Procop GW. Histologic features of zygomycosis: Emphasis on perineural invasion and fungal morphology. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2001;125(3):375–378. DOI: 10.5858/2001-125-0375-HFOZ.
Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/mucormycosis.index.html.
Prakash H, Chakrabarti A. Epidemiology of mucormycosis in India. Microorganisms 2021;9(3):523. DOI: 10.3390/microorganisms9030523.
Raut A, Huy NT. Rising incidence of mucormycosis in patients with COVID-19: another challenge for India amidst the second wave? Lancet Respir Med 2021;9(8):E77. DOI: 10.1016/S2213-2600(21)00265-4.
Bhansali A, Bhadada S, Sharma A, Suresh V, Gupta A, Singh P, et al. Presentation and outcome of rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis in patients with diabetes. Postgrad Med J 2004;80(949):670–674. DOI: 10.1136/pgmj.2003.016030.
Roden MM, Zaoutis TE, Buchanan WL, Knudsen TA, Sarkisova TA, Schaufele RL, et al. Epidemiology and outcome of zygomycosis: a review of 929 reported cases. Clin Infect Dis 2005;41(5):634–653. DOI: 10.1086/432579.
Jeong W, Keighley C, Wolfe R, Lee WL, Slavin MA, Kong DCM, et al. The epidemiology and clinical manifestations of mucormycosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of case reports. Clin Microbiol Infect 2019;25(1):26–34. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmi.2018.07.011.
Rammaert B, Lanternier F, Zahar JR, Dannaoui E, Bougnoux ME, Lecuit M, et al. Healthcare-associated mucormycosis. Clin Infect Dis 2012;54(suppl_1):S44–S54. DOI: 10.1093/cid/cir867.
Laniado-Laborín R, Cabrales-Vargas MN. Amphotericin B: side effects and toxicity. Rev Iberoam Micol 2009;26(4):223–227. DOI: 10.1016/j.riam.2009.06.003.
Chamilos G, Lewis RE, Kontoyiannis DP. Delaying amphotericin B-based frontline therapy significantly increases mortality among patients with hematologic malignancy who have zygomycosis. Clin Infect Dis 2008;47(4):503–509. DOI: 10.1086/590004.