[Year:2020] [Month:July-September] [Volume:13] [Number:3] [Pages:4] [Pages No:60 - 63]
Since centuries, humans have been afflicted with urinary stones dating back to 4,000 BC, and it is the most common disease of the urinary tract. Prevention of recurrence of renal stones remains a serious human health problem.1,2
Background: Prevention of renal stones recurrence requires a better understanding of the processes involved in stone formation. Kidney stones have been proposed to be a urological condition related to the metabolic syndrome.3,4 Nephrolithiasis is responsible for 2–3% of end-stage renal diseases.5
Aim: To identify the risk factors for renal calculi among patients attending nephrology OPD and to find out the association between the risk factors for renal calculi with the selected demographic variables of patients with renal calculi.
Materials and methods: Retrospective research design (Quantitative Approach) was adopted for the study. Thirty patients diagnosed with renal calculi were selected by purposive sampling technique. Risk factors were assessed by using open-ended questionnaire, and the data were analyzed by means of descriptive and inferential statistics such as frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, and Chi-square test.
Results: In the study, 12 (43%) were consuming 3 L of water in a day, 19 (78%) were taking tomatoes more in their food daily, 23 (79%) had no family history of renal calculi, 10 (40%) were having diabetes mellitus, and in consuming excessive amount of salt of more than 59 mg/day, 22 (78%) belong to yes and 8 (22%) belong to no. Regarding consumption of drugs, 19 (64%) belonged to no, 11 (36%) belonged to yes, and 18 (76%) belonged to agriculture. Thirteen (62%) samples are consuming alcohol once weekly, and 18 (64%) were consuming meat twice weekly. With regard to passing urine in a day, most 16 (70%) of the samples were passing 3–5 times, 23 (82%) had history of urinary tract infection, and 26 (86%) were not having the history of immobility. With regard to consumption of milk and milk products, 22(84%) had daily once. There was association between age and chronic and hereditary disease, gender and chronic and hereditary disease, religion and consumption of salt, and education and chronic and hereditary disease.
Conclusion: The risk factors for renal calculi were identified, and the education was given to the patients regarding the preventive measures and to control of risk factors in their day-to-day life. This research has been useful in defining risk factors and looking to the future.